Biography of Richard III (with corollary events)

1452
October 2 Richard, eleventh child and youngest son of the Duke and Duchess of York, is born at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.
1460
July 10 Battle of Northampton; Henry VI captured by the Earl of Warwick.
December 31 He is 7 years old when his father, Richard Duke of York, and elder brother Edmund Earl of Rutland, are killed at Wakefield. In January of the next year he escapes to the safety of the Netherlands with his mother and older brother George.
1461
February 3 Battle of Mortimer’s Cross; Edward, Earl of March claims throne and becomes Edward IV.
February 17 Second Battle of St. Alban’s; the Earl of Warwick is defeated.
March Richard and George are sent to Philip, Duke of Burgundy for protection.
March 4 Edward IV proclaimed King in London.
March 29 Yorkists crush Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton, Yorkshire.
June 12 The York family returns from the continent for the coronation of Edward IV.
November 1 At the age of 8, Richard is created Duke of Gloucester by his brother, the new king.
1462
August Richard appointed Constable of Corfe Castle in Dorset
1464
April 25 Battle at Hedgeley Moor. The Yorkists are victorious.
May 15 Battle of Hexham. Yorkist victory.
May Edward IV married Elizabeth Woodville
1465
From the age of 12, Richard is educated in the household of the Earl of Warwick (The Kingmaker) where he learns the arts of chivalry and warfare, as well as literature and law. His companions include Francis Lovell and the Earl’s daughters, Isabel and Anne.
1466
February 11 Elizabeth of York, eldest child of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, is born. Her destiny was to become the Queen of King Henry VII.
1469
Spring Richard is recalled to the royal court as the relationship between the Earl of Warwick and King Edward IV deteriorates.
July 29 Warwick, in alliance with George, Duke of Clarence, takes Edward IV prisoner after the battle at Edgecote, but public support for Edward forces Warwick to release the king in September.
October 17 Richard, at 17, is created Constable of England, the highest military
appointment in the realm.
1470
February Richard appointed Chief Justice and Chamberlain of South Wales, Steward of the kings’ lands in the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan
March 6 – April 28 Warwick and Clarence once again try to overthrow Edward IV; but are outmanoeuvred and flee to France.
March 12 Battle of Empingham (Lose-Coat Field), near Stamford. Edward IV is victorious.
July In France, Warwick enters into an agreement with French King Louis XI and Queen Margaret, (wife of Henry VI) to restore Henry VI to the throne. Warwick’s youngest daughter Anne is married to Prince Edward of Lancaster to seal the deal.
August 26 Richard appointed Warden of the West March towards Scotland.
September Warwick and Clarence land in Devon and raise a rebellion in the name of Henry VI.
October 2 Edward IV and Richard escape to Burgundy. Restoration of Henry VI.
November 4 Queen Elizabeth gives birth to Edward, eldest son of Edward IV, while in sanctuary at Westminster Abbey
1471
March With fewer than 1,000 men, Edward IV and Richard land at Ravenspur, East Yorkshire, to reclaim the throne. Their cause gathers support.
April 2 George, Duke of Clarence, abandons the Earl of Warwick and reconciles with his brothers, Edward and Richard.
April 14 At the age of 18, Richard proves himself an able battle commander at Barnet. The Earl of Warwick is killed. Queen Margaret lands in England with another Lancastrian army.
May 4 The Battle of Tewkesbury. Edward of Lancaster is killed, Queen Margaret is captured.
May 21 Deposed king Henry VI is killed in the Tower of London, presumably on the order of Edward IV.
Summer Richard is appointed as Lord of the North.
1472
July 12 Richard marries Anne, daughter of the Earl of Warwick, at Westminster.
1473
December Richard’s son, Edward of Middleham is born. (earliest of two possible dates, the other being 1476)
1475
August By the terms of the Accord at Picquigny, Edward IV accepts a substantial bribe from King Louis XI not to invade France. Richard is offended by this action and refuses to accept the pension offered him by the French king.
For the next few years, Richard spends the majority of his time at his northern estates, travelling to the south of England only for great occasions of state.
1478
February Marriage of Richard, Duke of York, second son of Edward IV to Anne Mowbray, Norfolk heiress.
February 18 George, Duke of Clarence executed on orders from his brother Edward IV, for treason.
1482
July After two years of border skirmishes, Edward IV gives Richard the task of invading Scotland. He captures Edinburgh and reclaims the English town of Berwick from the Scots.
August 25 Henry VI’s queen, Margaret of Anjou, dies in France.
1483
April 9 Edward IV dies at age 40 and, in accordance with his wishes, Richard becomes Lord High Protector. Edward, Prince of Wales becomes Edward V.
April 14 News of his father’s death reaches Edward V at Ludlow
April 16 While in the North, Richard is informed of his brother’s death by Lord Hastings. Richard writes to Earl Rivers, custodian of Edward V at Ludlow, to Queen Elizabeth, and the council of Edward IV, pledging loyalty to the new king. He receives no reply.
April 18 Funeral of Edward IV
April 20 Interment of Edward IV
April 23 Richard begins journey south from York
April 24 Edward V begins journey east from Ludlow
April 29 Richard and the Duke of Buckingham arrive in Northampton. Meet Earl Rivers over supper and informed Edward V is at Stoney Stratford.
April 30 Richard and the Duke of Buckingham intercept Edward V at Stoney Stratford enroute for London. Earl Rivers, Lord Richard Grey and Sir Thomas Vaughan are arrested.
May 1 Elizabeth Woodville and her children claim sanctuary at Westminster.
May 2 Letter from Edward V at Northampton to Cardinal Bourchier urging him to “see to the safekeeping of the Tower and the treasure therein”.
May 4 Original date of Edward V’s coronation. Edward V, Richard and Buckingham arrive in London.
May 8 Richard appointed as Lord Protector
May 9 / 19 Edward V moved to Royal apartments in the Tower
May 10 Richard’s protectorship confirmed by Council
May 10 Bishop John Russell of Lincoln appointed Chancellor, replacing Archbishop Rotherham
May 13 Summons for Parliament for 25 June
May 18 New date for Edward V’s coronation set (June 24)
June 9 Council meets at Westminster
June 11 Richard sends letter to City of York via Sir Richard Ratcliffe, calling for military aid against the Queen’s faction.
June 13 Lord Hastings is arrested and executed on Tower Green for conspiring to overthrow the Protectorate.
June 16 Elizabeth Woodville allows Richard, Duke of York to leave sanctuary and join his brother Edward V in the Tower, to prepare for the coronation.
June 17 Decision to postpone Parliament and coronation of Edward V to November.
June 19 Richard writes another letter to York, proclaiming against plotters.
June 22 It is publicly announced that the marriage between Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville was bigamous, and the children of that union are illegitimate. Plans for Edward’s coronation are abandoned.
June 24 Buckingham urges Richard’s title to the crown to the City gentlemen at the Guildhall.
June 24 Anthony Earl Rivers, Lord Richard Grey, and Thomas Vaughan executed at Pontefract Castle.
June 25 Edward V’s reign ends.
June 26 Richard is petitioned by the Three Estates to accept the throne.
July 1 Northern army arrives and encamps outside London (Moorfields).
July 6 Coronation of Richard and Anne at Westminster Abbey.
July 29 – August 2 King Richard and Queen Anne in Gloucester while on progress.
August 29 Richard, Anne and Edward of Middleham arrive in York on progress, for a three week stay.
August 30 Louis XI of France dies
September 8 Edward of Middleham invested as Prince of Wales at York Minster.
Fall Rumours begin that the sons of Edward IV, the “Princes in the Tower”, have been murdered.
October 10 Duke of Buckingham’s rebellion.
October 12 Richard in Lincoln: writes letter to Lord Chancellor denouncing Buckingham as “most untrue creature”.
November 2 Buckingham is executed in Salisbury.
November 3 Richard’s army marches to Poole in Dorset, to learn that Henry Tudor has sailed back to France.
Christmas Richard and Anne in London
December 25 Henry Tudor proclaims himself King Henry VII at Rennes Cathedral.
1484
January 6 – 22 (?) Richard on progress in Kent.
January 15 French Chancellor Guillaume de Rochefort announces to the Estates-General of France at Tours, that the children of King Edward IV were killed with impunity and the crown transferred to their murderer.
January 23 –
February 20
The only Parliament of Richard’s reign is held. See: The Statutes of Richard III’s Parliament Titulus Regius is passed.
March 1 Elizabeth Woodville reconciles with Richard and leaves sanctuary with her
daughters.
April 19 – 26 Edward of Middleham dies at Middleham Castle during this period.
August Richard has the body of Henry VI moved from Chertsey Abbey to St. George’s Chapel, Windsor.
Richard grants charter founding the Royal College of Arms.
1485
January 13 Sir James Tyrell made Commander of Guisnes
March 16 Queen Anne dies at age 28 after a lingering illness (suspected tuberculosis).
March 29 Richard publicly denies rumours he will marry his niece Elizabeth of York, at the London Guildhall.
June 9 Richard arrives at Nottingham to await Tudor’s landing.
August 7 Henry Tudor lands at Milford Haven in Wales.
August 11 Richard at his hunting lodge at Bestwood in Sherwood Forest
August 18 Richard’s army mustered at Leicester.
August 21 Richard and his army ride out of Leicester, to meet the forces of Henry Tudor and block their route to London along Fenn Lane. They camp overnight near Ambion Hill.
August 22 King Richard III dies, defending his kingdom at Bosworth Field. Henry Tudor declares himself King Henry VII.
August 25 The mortal remains of King Richard III are interred with little ceremony, in the choir of the church of the Greyfriars in Leicester.
2012
September 11 The fully articulated skeleton of an adult male is found in the choir of the newly re-discovered Greyfriars Church in Leicester. The skull shows wounds from bladed weapons, and the spine shows signs of scoliosis. Is it King Richard III? Only DNA testing can confirm or deny.
2013
February 4 The adult male skeleton found under a car park in Leicester has been confirmed “by overwhelming evidence” as the remains of King Richard III.
2015
March 26 The remains of King Richard III are re-interred with ceremony in a tomb in Leicester Cathedral.